Dean's Undergraduate Research Awards
Johns Hopkins University
336 Garland Hall
3400 N. Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21218
A phenomenon in rabbinic literature often ignored, the “bat qol” (often translated as “echo” or “heavenly voice”) and its usage in early Jewish texts is highly telling of rabbinic attitudes both toward their own theology and the theology of others. Using early rabbinic sources, particularly the Talmud (in both its current form and early manuscripts) and Toledot Yeshu, I am tracking the evolution of the “bat qol” tradition from its inception in late Second Temple Judaism to its forms in late Geonic/early medieval rabbinic literature.