Karl Alexander is Executive Director of the Thurgood Marshall Alliance. He retired from the Johns Hopkins University in 2014 after 42 years on the Sociology faculty, including 15 years as department chair. He presently holds appointments at Hopkins as the John Dewey Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Academy Professor, and, by courtesy, Professor in the School of Education. Alexander received his PhD in Sociology in 1972 from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is Past President of the Southern Sociological Society, past editor of the journal Sociology of Education, and a Fellow of the American Educational Research Association. Beginning in 1982 and continuing for more than a quarter century, he and colleague Doris Entwisle directed the Baltimore-based Beginning School Study (BSS), which tracked the life progress of 790 Baltimore children from first grade into mature adulthood. He is author of nearly 100 scholarly publications. His six books include The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth and the Transition to Adulthood (Russell Sage 2014), recipient of the 2016 Grawemeyer Prize in Education. In addition to his work with the Marshall Alliance, Alexander serves on the Board of the National Summer Learning Association. His studies of summer learning loss in Baltimore have helped bring attention to the problem of “summer slide” among low income children. With the leadership of NSLA, he is co-editor of The Summer Slide: What We Know and Can Do About Summer Learning Loss (Teachers College Press, 2016).
My research tries to understand why some children, and some kinds of children, are more successful in school than others and how this affects them later in life. I am particularly interested in the role schools play in society's system of stratification, and how youngsters perform in school is an important part of the picture. Patterns of social inequality from generation to generation in large measure are maintained through the educational system. Children from disadvantaged family circumstances don't perform as well academically as do those from more advantaged families, and later, when they embark on careers or seek employment, their academic qualifications and credentials carry less value. This helps perpetuate historic patterns of advantage and disadvantage. "Success" in school can mean many things, but my work deals mainly with persistence in the school system (i.e., staying in school), academic performance, self-attitudes in the student role, and children's goals for the future (e.g., educational and occupational aspirations). Through survey studies of school age-youngsters, I try to identify features of the home, of the school, and of the individual that seem to promote or impede positive school adjustment.
My work generally adopts a social-psychological, life-course perspective. In broad terms, it explores how aspects of personal development that are relevant to school success respond to influences at home and at school, and to the intersection of experiences across these two institutional contexts. The main data base I've been working with in recent years is the Beginning School Study, which since 1982 has been monitoring the personal and academic development of a large, representative sample of youngsters who began first grade that year in 20 Baltimore City Public Schools. An ongoing study, the BSS now is in its 18th year and in 1999 we successfully re-interviewed 80% of the original group as young adults (age 23 - 24). I'm presently working on the question of high school dropout. Forty-two percent of the BSS cohort left school without degrees. My research tries to identify early precursors of dropout back as far as first grade and tries to understand the impact of this decision for their later life prospects.
2014, K. L. Alexander, D. R. Entwisle and L. S. Olson. The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. Rose Series in Sociology, Russell Sage Foundation.
2005, D. R. Entwisle, K. L. Alexander and L. S. Olson. "First Grade and Educational Attainment by Age 22: A New Story." American Journal of Sociology 110(5): 1458-1502.
2005, D. R. Entwisle, K. L. Alexander and L. S. Olson. "Urban Teenagers: Work and Dropout." Youth and Society 37(1): 3-32.
2003, K. L. Alexander, D. R. Entwisle and S. L. Dauber. On the Success of Failure: A Reassessment of the Effects of Retention in the Primary Grades. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
1994/2003, K. L. Alexander, D. R. Entwisle and S. L. Dauber. On the Success of Failure: A Reassessment of the Effects of Retention in the Primary Grades.Cambridge University Press. (second edition published in 2003)
1988, K. L. Alexander and D. R. Entwisle. Achievement in the First Two Years of School: Patterns and Processes. Monographs of the Society for
Research in Child Development 53 (2), Serial No. 218.
- 2014, Russell Sage Foundation
- Role: author
- Purchase Online
- 2003, Cambridge University Press
- Role: author
- Purchase Online
Midday with Dan Rodricks: http://wypr.org/post/long-shadow
The Kojo Nnamdi Show: http://thekojonnamdishow.org/shows/2014-07-07/long-shadow-childhood-poverty/transcript
Chronicle of Higher Ed: http://chronicle.com/article/How-the-Long-Shadow-of/148329